western ghats chinnamalai elephants

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Elephant Migration
Both Asian and African elephants migrate and generally follow the same migratory routes annually. Migration distances vary considerably depending on environmental conditions. During a prolonged dry season in Africa, elephant migration distances were recorded to extend over 100 km (62 mi.). Studies documenting Asian elephants in deciduous forests of southern India, with numerous water sources, reported elephant migration to extend between 20 and 50 km (12 and 31 mi.).

When the rainy season arrives, usually from October to December and March to June, elephant herds return to native regions to feed on the lush, green vegetation the rains helped regenerate. Elephant migration allows time for the re—growth of vegetation in exhausted grazing areas.

Elephant migrations occur in one of the following three ways. The migration method depends on environmental conditions.

Individual family groups separate themselves from the larger herd. This method may be used in response to limited food supplies encountered during a dry season migration. If food sources are scarce along the migratory route, it is more efficient to travel as individual families, rather than large herds. Family groups traveling in this manner are generally led by a dominant female at the front of the group and another at the back, to guard the rear. The young travel between the dominant females for protection and supervision.
Several family groups, usually between two and five, may form a larger group called bond groups for migration. Bond groups provide additional security due to more sets of watchful eyes. Females share leadership and supervisory responsibilities based on age, experience, and temperament. These groups require more food resources along the migratory route but benefit from increased protection.
Occasionally, entire populations of elephant herds join together in mass migration, with estimates as high as 500 individuals reported. This method provides maximum protection for herds but food resources must be present along the migratory route in sufficient quantity.

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When posting your links, remember to use the FULL video link like this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TOb6ul-82Ms DO NOT use the shortened youtu.be links, they will sometimes not work.